The true alphabetic system has remained for 3, years, with only slight modifications, an unparalleled vehicle of expression and communication in and among the most diverse nationalities and languages.
Another hypothesisthe Ugaritic theory, evolved after an epoch-making discovery in and the years following at the site of the ancient Ugariton the Syrian coast opposite the most easterly cape of Cyprus.
The ascendancy of Latin led to the adoption of the Latin Roman alphabet by light writing alphabet letters large majority of nations; it became used for tongues of the most diverse linguistic groups, not only in Europe but in all other parts of the world as well.
In a stylized form it was used on Jewish coins from bce light writing alphabet letters — ce. See also Dead Sea Scrolls. Almost as if by prearrangement, all of the alphabetic scripts west of Syria seem to have been derived, directly or indirectly, from the Canaanite alphabet, whereas the hundreds of alphabetic writings of the East apparently have sprung from the offshoots of the Aramaic alphabet.
The transplantation of masses of Aramaeans by the Assyrians, a political measure designed to break up military alliances, bore remarkable fruit.
Similarly, the idea that cuneiform was the precursor of the alphabet may also be subdivided into those singling out Sumerian, Babylonian, or Assyrian cuneiform.
The oldest extant example of the Early Hebrew ABCs is the 8th—7th-century-bce schoolboy graffito mentioned above. This rarity of indigenous documents is in contrast to the numbers of Phoenician inscriptions found elsewhere—on Cyprus, Malta, Sicily, and Sardinia, and in Greece, North AfricaMarseille, Spain, and other places.
Thousands of clay tablets were found there, documents of inestimable value in many fields of research including epigraphyphilologyand the history of religion.
The earliest definitely readable inscription in the North Semitic alphabet is the so-called Ahiram inscription found at Byblos in Phoenicia now Lebanonwhich probably dates from the 11th century bce.
Among the various other theories concerning the alphabet are the hypotheses that the alphabet was taken by the Philistines from Crete to Palestine, that the various ancient scripts of the Mediterranean countries developed from prehistoric geometric symbols employed throughout the Mediterranean area from the earliest times, and that the proto-Sinaitic inscriptions discovered since in the Sinai Peninsula represent a stage of writing intermediate between the Egyptian hieroglyphics and the North Semitic alphabet.
Theories explaining diffusion There is no complete agreement among scholars as to how or why certain alphabets have come to dominate much of the world. The Aramaic alphabet The adaptation of the North Semitic alphabet to the Aramaic language took place at some time in the 10th century bce, when Aramaic was spoken in several petty kingdoms in northern Mesopotamia and Syria, the most important of them being Dammeshek Damascus.
It was in use at the beginning of the 1st millennium bce. Page 1 of 2. Among modern theories are some that are not very different from those of ancient days.
Of all the accomplishments of the ancient Middle East, the invention of the alphabet is probably the greatest. The Early Hebrew alphabet had already begun to acquire its distinctive character by the 11th century bce.
In default of other direct evidence, it is reasonable to suppose that the actual prototype of the alphabet was not very different from the writing of the earliest North Semitic inscriptions now extantwhich belong to the last two or three centuries of the 2nd millennium bce.
The Aramaic alphabet was probably also the prototype of the Brahmi script of India, a script that became the parent of nearly all Indian writings.
While some scholars consider the Semitic writing system an unvocalized syllabary and the Greek system the true alphabet, both are treated here as forms of the alphabet. This step occurred between and bce.
Derived from the Aramaic alphabet, it came into being in northwest India. Every country situated in or more or less near the eastern Mediterranean has been singled out for the honour. It includes the scratching of the first five letters of the early Hebrew alphabet in their conventional order, and it belongs to the 8th or 7th century bce.
All of the alphabets in use in European languages today are directly or indirectly related to the Greek. That they manifest closely related efforts is certain; what the exact relationship among these efforts was, and what their relationship with the North Semitic alphabet was, cannot be said with certainty.
A cursive style reached its climax in the inscriptions at Tel Lakhish, dating from the beginning of the 6th century bce. Others hold that the alphabet follows the flag; that is, that the diffusion of an alphabet results from political and military conquests by the people who use it.
First, Early Hebrew had three secondary branches—Moabite, Edomite, and Ammonite—and two offshoots—the script of Jewish coins and the Samaritan script, still in use today for liturgical purposes only.
Over the centuries, various theories have been advanced to explain the origin of alphabetic writing, and, since Classical times, the problem has been a matter of serious study. On the whole, the few early Aramaic inscriptions that have been found belong to the 9th, 8th, and 7th centuries bce.Colorful alphabet letters.
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Add To Cart. INSTAGRAM. NEWSLETTER. Email Address. SIGN UP. Thank you! The Old English alphabet letters below can be generated online for free with our web based letter generators. View our 25 letter generators on our homepage. You can also save and print any of these ready made Old English letters below.
English Gothic Font Alphabet A. While pre-alphabetic systems of writing in the Old World became steadily more phonetic, they were still exceedingly cumbersome, and the syllabic systems that gradually replaced them Dating from the 15th and 14th centuries bce, they were written in a cuneiform alphabet of 30 letters.Download